Penetrability of tank ammunition in the Second World War Part II : Problems of calculated values for armor-piercing shells compared to the test results. Therefore, in order to be consistent with the equations used in Part I of the World War II Tank Ammunition Penetration Test and to apply a proper scientific method, we cannot use the muzzle velocities from the same test data where we are trying to replace the penetration figures of the shells. We would therefore have to calculate the muzzle velocity for each weapon system! One could initially be of the opinion that the calculation of the muzzle velocity is a relatively simple matter. To do this, the pressure inside the breech chamber must be determined and the acceleration of the projectile must be calculated over the length of the barrel. These are the dominating factors which determine the muzzle velocity and give an approximate value.
A projectile that enters the ship can encounter up to four or five layers of armor and may be stopped or ricochet at each layer. In this regard the developers attempted to adhere to historical realism and simulate all significant layers of armor. Therefore, battleship designers tried to save some of that weight by placing heavy armor only around the vital parts of the ship: the ammunition and propellant magazines, the propulsion plant, the fire-control, command and communications sections.
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