Erikson's stages of psychosocial development , as articulated in the second half of the 20th century by Erik Erikson in collaboration with Joan Erikson ,  is a comprehensive psychoanalytic theory that identifies a series of eight stages that a healthy developing individual should pass through from infancy to late adulthood. He originally worked on improving Freud's theories. Erikson's stage theory characterizes an individual advancing through the eight life stages as a function of negotiating their biological and sociocultural forces. The two conflicting forces each have a psychosocial crisis which characterizes the eight stages. If an individual does indeed successfully reconcile these forces favoring the first mentioned attribute in the crisis , they emerge from the stage with the corresponding virtue.
Erik Erikson's Stages of Psychosocial Development
Psychosexual and Psychosocial Theories of Development | Introduction to Psychology
Psychosocial factors affect both psychological as well as physical functioning over time 5 which can lead to either adaptive or maladaptive illness behaviors. Classes of adaptive illness behaviors include:. The issue is complex, however, because coping behaviors vary among health conditions. Maladaptive coping for some conditions may be adaptive in other diseases. Therefore, one large clinical challenge is to identify the specific coping behaviors that could be productive for any given patient.
Chapter 24: Psychosocial Development in Early Adulthood
Many theories attempt to explain human behavior, health, and mental illness. Psychoanalytic theory supports the notion that all human behavior is caused and can be explained deterministic theory. Sigmund Freud developed psychoanalytic theory in the late 19th and early 20th centuries in Vienna, where he spent most of his life.
This stage begins at approximately age 65 and ends at death. Psychologists, counselors, and nurses today use the concepts of Erikson's stages when providing care for aging patients. While many developmental theories tend to focus purely on childhood events, Erikson was one of the few theorists to look at development across the entire course of the lifespan. He was also one of the first to view the aging process itself as part of human development. At each stage of psychosocial development, people are faced with a crisis that acts as a turning point in development.